Some investors buy mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) to help generate income—which typically comes from either stock dividends or bond interest payments. But how do you measure income or “yield” on these investments?
Most funds display two measures of yield, which can help investors understand a fund’s yield story.
30-day SEC yield
In an effort to standardize yield reporting, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) developed the 30-day yield metric, which must be displayed by any fund that reports its yield. To calculate it, a fund divides its net income per share (dividends plus interest) during the 30-day period by the best price per share on the last day of that same period. This metric doesn’t reflect what a fund distributed to fund shareholders over the prior year, so it’s most helpful when considering funds with monthly income payments, like bond funds.
Also called the “trailing 12-month yield” or “TTM,” this metric is calculated by dividing a fund’s cumulative distributions over the previous 12 months by its net asset value (NAV) at the end of the period. Because this indicator is backward-looking, it doesn’t reflect recent portfolio adjustments or price changes that could affect the fund’s future yield. As a result the TTM yield is usually considered an estimate.
Both metrics help you measure a fund’s income—but both have limitations. Many investors consider the backward-looking TTM an estimate and the SEC yield more current and a stronger indicator of what to expect in the near future.