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Schwab Sector Views: The State of Real Estate

Real estate investment trusts (REITs) have not been at the epicenter of the COVID-19 crisis, but they are certainly collateral damage. 

The massive government stimulus efforts and rapid expansion of the vaccine distribution have boosted optimism for a return to normalcy, but questions remain about how potential long-term changes in consumer and business behaviors might affect REITs. Trends in e-commerce, internet entertainment, and how businesses leverage technology have accelerated, but work-from-home and social distancing might have an enduring impact on office, multifamily, and retail segments of the REITs sector.   

Considering the positives, negatives, and uncertainties, I think that a market-weight allocation to the sector as part of a well-balanced portfolio is appropriate.   

COVID-19’s impact on REITs

While the Real Estate sector has rallied sharply from its market lows, it has sharply lagged the overall market since the beginning of 2020.

The Real Estate sector has underperformed amid the COVID-19 crisis

sp500 table

Source: Bloomberg as of 3/10/2021. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

However, as the chart below shows, the impact on various types of REITs has varied throughout the crisis and recovery. Those segments with strong structural tailwinds—like specialized and industrial REITs (including data centers, telecom infrastructure, and warehouse/distribution centers)—did well due to strong trends in e-commerce, technology, and telecom. On the other hand, office, retail, hotel & resort, and residential REITs clearly have not fully recovered from the COVID-related downturn. 

Performance has varied within REITs 

reit performance

Source: Bloomberg. Total return of the S&P 1500 REITs Index and the sub-industry indexes of the REITs Index from 1/1/2020 to 3/10/21. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

Despite the rally in the overall market and strong economic recovery, investors seem to be pricing in the uncertainties of the post-COVID world, in terms of travel, working from home, and self-imposed social distancing. For example, the rise in e-commerce is positive for industrials and warehouse/distribution centers, but is a significant headwind for traditional retail space.

Industrial and specialized REITs have outperformed

It’s not news that everything technology did well throughout the crisis—industrial and specialized REITs categories included. As can be seen in the chart below, the percentage of total retail sales through e-commerce surged to a record high during the height of the crisis. Government stimulus checks and a sharp decline in eating out and travel left consumers with plenty of cash (and time) to shop online, at grocery stores, and at big-box retailers—all of which need warehouse and distribution centers. Some of the biggest industrial REITs count e-commerce giant Amazon as their largest tenant. While there have been some zigs and zags in the chart, the trend is decidedly higher. 

Online retail sales have trended higher over the past decade

online retail sales

Source: Bloomberg as of 3/16/21.  Chart reflects the U.S. Census Bureau’s US Retail Sales Electronic Shopping & Mail-Order Houses SA as a percent of Total Retail Sales SA. Available data for online sales is through January 2021

Many of the larger REITs in the specialized category own properties associated with communications infrastructure and data centers used for cloud computing services, among other types of properties. The secular tailwinds for this segment are clear, and the COVID crisis increased demand for internet and cellular bandwidth, as well as information technologies needed to support the mass transition to employees working from home. REITs that own these facilities are benefiting from not only increased demand for space but have also maintained high collection rates on leases. With more people now accustomed to online purchases, robust demand for e-commerce-related warehouse and distribution space is expected to continue. 

Together, the market cap of the industrial and specialized REITs account for nearly 55% of the S&P 1500 REITs sector—up from just 32% in 2016—and have been the driving force behind the recovery in the overall sector.  

REITs are dominated by industrial and specialized REITs

reit weight percent

Source: Bloomberg. Reflects weights for the S&P 1500 REITs Sector in January 2016 and January 2021

Hotel, health-care and retail REITs have struggled

It’s the other 45% of the REIT sector that remains underwater amid ongoing uncertainties—despite the economic rebound and record stimulus to keep them afloat. 

  • Hotel REITs are a small segment of the overall S&P 1500 REITs index. Their outlook is dependent on the vaccine rollout and risk of COVID-19 variants. While hotels have received emergency funding, hotel REITs typically are paid per agreements to share hotel revenues—which were down 50% or more in 2020. A U.N. World Tourism Organization survey showed that a full recovery in the industry isn’t expected until 2024. 
  • Health-care REITs—which account for about 10% of the S&P 1500 REITs index—were at risk from reduced elective surgeries and doctor visit shortfalls, but volumes have rebounded from the depths of the crisis. However, nursing home facilities have experienced a sharp 15% drop in occupancy due to a high COVID-related death rate and decline in enrollments. While there are short-term risks for the health-care segment, long-term age demographic trends are a tailwind.   
  • It’s notable that retail REITs now have a much smaller footprint in the S&P 1500 REITs index than in 2016. The impact on small retailers—particularly restaurants and bars—has been extreme, driving down valuations as thousands of businesses have shut their doors. With the ongoing strong economic recovery and vaccine prospects, the $28 billion earmarked for retailers in the latest stimulus package should help stem the bleeding. 

However, there are longer-term issues at play. With the rise in e-commerce in recent years, retail was already in bad shape prior to the crisis and the market cap of many of these REITs were already in retreat. Mall traffic had been down significantly, and the surge in anchor-store bankruptcies and closures has only made matters worse. JCPenney—which shut 150 stores in the past year—and Neiman Marcus both filed for bankruptcy; while Macy’s has not, it plans to shutter 125 stores by 2023. When anchor stores like these vacate, other retailers typically have an escape clause from their leases if the space is not filled within a year and a half. In a bid to slow the decline, consortiums including REITs that own the malls have bought some troubled and bankrupt retailers as a way to maintain anchor store presence. While many of these major retailers are growing their e-commerce businesses, the ongoing decline in their brick-and-mortar footprint is likely to continue. 

To be sure, retail sales have returned, helped by the massive stimulus packages and gradual decline in unemployment—although restaurant & bar sales are still off more than 16% and clothing is off 11% from year-ago-levels. It’s the mix of what is being purchased, how it is being purchased (in person or online), and where it is being purchased. 

In non-city centers, the Paycheck Protection Plan has been particularly helpful for the smaller businesses in malls and standalone retail space. While occupancy rates have ebbed, collection rates in many cases have recovered to pre-crisis levels.  However, many of the retail REITs are exposed to a greater degree to major business centers, where work-from-home appears to have kicked off a migration from the urban areas to the suburbs. 

Urban flight, unemployment, and multi-family REITs 

It has become apparent that work-from-home policies are having a significant impact on REITs—particularly office and multi-family. Since stay-at-home orders went into effect last year, people have taken the opportunity to move out of high-rent major cities to more affordable cities and suburbs. 

The de-urbanization to the suburbs is hurting the major-city markets where much of the REIT-owned apartment properties are located. The map below reflects the decline in apartment prices in many major high-cost cities (blue) and the corresponding rise in rents (red) in areas with rising demand. At the extreme, reports that the average rent for a 1-bedroom apartment in San Francisco was down 24% in February from a year ago. This comes after several high-profile defections from Silicon Valley, including decisions by both Oracle and Hewlett Packard to move their headquarters to Texas. However, with rising mortgage rates, tight housing supply, and rapid rise in median house prices nationwide (existing single-family home prices were up 14.8% year-over-year in January), the migration out of urban areas could slow. 

Average rents have declined in major high-cost cities, and risen elsewhere

growth map

Source: with permission

Even if the urban flight slows, multi-family REITs still have a high unemployment rate to contend with. The Census Department’s recent pulse survey found that 17% of renters—predominately low-income unemployed families—are behind on paying rent. Moody’s Analytics has estimated that there is $57 billion in outstanding delinquent rents, utilities, and late fees. Fortunately, the latest stimulus legislation provides $22 billion in renter subsidies—on top of the $25 billion in the previous stimulus package—which helps buy some time. Yet with 10 million people still unemployed and the vaccine distribution not expected to be significantly completed until the end of May, eventual losses to multi-family REITs are uncertain. Of course, as the recovery continues and social distancing restrictions ease, the unemployment rate should continue to decline. 

Office space: Will workers return?

While multifamily lease delinquencies and non-renewals become apparent in fairly short order, the impact on the office space is opaquer. The contracts are longer, and it can take years for corporations to make real estate decisions. While there has been a slight uptick in lease vacancies in major markets, collections have been maintained at year-ago levels and lease values have remained stable. However, record low absorption rate (newly rented office space as a percent of total available after accounting for vacated space over the period) and rapidly rising office space available for sublet point to downward pressure on lease price per square foot and real estate values in the future. The chart below, provided by JLL Research, shows that the negative net absorption has far surpassed that seen in the 2008-09 financial crisis, and likely reflects the uncertainty surrounding what corporate real estate needs will be post-COVID. Businesses are holding off on making new lease decisions.        

Negative net absorption has surpassed the drop seen in 2008-2009

net absorbption

Source: JLL Research with permission

Currently, office use in 10 major cities is down 76% on average from prior to the crisis, according to Kastle Systems, which provides commercial property occupancy data based on daily entries into Kastle-secured buildings. Future demand for office space will be heavily affected by the number of workers who will continue to work from home. With concerns about worker productivity, burnout and onboarding new workers, it is safe to say that most employers will bring their workers back to the office. However, according to a University of Chicago Booth School of Business paper, 22% of employees are expected to work remotely at least part time, up from 5% prior to the crisis. There is growing consensus that this could result in a 15% decline in demand for office space, which would likely have a significant negative impact on office REITs.

Back-to-work barometer 

back to work barometer

Source: Bloomberg as of 3/9/21. 

Interest rate risk is rising

Recently, 10-year Treasury yields rose to a post-pandemic high of 1.6%, as Treasury prices (which move inversely to yields) declined amid expectations for improving economic growth and rising inflation. We expect yields to pull back near term, but think that they could move higher later this year, which would be a headwind for REITs in general.

The chart below compares the sensitivity to interest rates relative to the other sectors. The negative sign for the Real Estate sector coefficients reflects the historical tendency for the sector to underperform when rates rise (and vice versa). 

Real Estate tend to be more affected than other sectors by rising interest rates

interest rate coefficient

Source: Charles Schwab. The sensitivity coefficient (also known as beta) is a measure of the historical price change in sector as a function of the weekly variation of interest rates from 1/1/2015 to 1/1/2020. The time period that excludes the COVID crisis was chosen based on the premise of it likely being a better representation of historical relationships. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

The REITs sector is considered defensive in nature, and is negatively affected by rising interest rates, in part because real estate is capital-intensive and highly leveraged. There are many REITs that are more cyclical—particularly those specializing in hotel properties, self-storage, and apartments—which typically have short-term leases and are less sensitive to rates. These REITs stand to benefit the most from the economic recovery once the unique COVID-related barriers are removed. However, the majority of REITS—such as health care, industrial, telecom infrastructure, office, malls, and large chain store spaces—are less sensitive to the economy and carry longer-term leases that make them more sensitive to interest rates. 

Valuation is relatively attractive

While nearly all sectors’ valuations are currently rich, the Real Estate sector’s valuations are well below that for the overall market. In the chart below, the bars represent value composites that include up to six different valuation metrics that provide a holistic perspective on current valuations relative to each of the sectors’ own historical valuations, as well as relative to the other sectors. 

Real Estate valuation is below the overall market

sector standard deviations

Source: SCFR, Bloomberg as of 2/28/2021. Bars represent z-score for value composites that include up to six different valuation metrics that provide a holistic perspective on current valuations relative to each of the sectors’ own historical valuations, as well as relative to the other sectors. Standard deviation is the statistical measure of volatility, measuring how widely the data is dispersed from the historical mean or median. Z-score is the number of standard deviations from the mean or median. REITs valuations reflects the forward price/funds from operations.

Bottom line: Marketperform

Attractive valuations need to be assessed in the context of the mixed macroeconomic environment for the sector—with stronger growth but a headwind from higher interest rates. Fundamentals of the group are mixed, with industrial and specialized REITs well positioned as strong technology and e-commerce trends remain in place. 

While apartment REITs will likely recovery as the economy heals and the unemployment rate subsides, retail is likely to continue to struggle from the e-commerce trends, and there are too many questions surrounding the path of work-from-home trends and their potential impact on office REITs. Considering the positive, negatives and risks, I think that a neutral or market weight allocation to REITs within a well-balanced portfolio is appropriate. While the resolution of many of the risks could set the sector up for outperformance, I’m maintaining a marketperform rating on REITs for now. 

What do the ratings mean?

The sectors we analyze are from the widely recognized Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS®) groupings. After a review of risks and opportunities, we give each stock sector one of the following ratings:

  • Outperform: likely to perform better than the broader stock market*
  • Underperform: likely to perform worse than the broader stock market
  • Marketperform: likely to track the broader stock market

* As represented by the S&P 500 index

Want to learn more about a specific sector? Visit “Schwab Sector Insights: A View on 11 Equity Sectors” to learn more about each sector and see how they compare. Schwab clients can log in to see our top-rated stocks in each sector.


How should I use Schwab Sector Views?

Investors should generally be well-diversified across all stock market sectors. You can use the Standard & Poor's 500® Index allocations to each sector, listed in the chart above, as a guideline. 

Investors who want to make tactical shifts in their portfolios can use Schwab Sector Views' outperform, underperform and marketperform ratings as a resource. These ratings can be helpful in evaluating and monitoring the domestic equity portion of your portfolio.

Schwab Sector Views can also be useful in identifying stocks by sector for potential purchase or sale. Clients can use the Portfolio Checkup tool to help ascertain and manage sector allocations. When it's time to make adjustments, Schwab clients can use the Stock Screener or Mutual Fund Screener to help identify buy or sell candidates in particular sectors. Schwab Equity Ratings also can provide an objective and powerful approach for helping you select and monitor stocks.

What You Can Do Next

Important Disclosures:

Schwab Sector Views do not represent a personalized recommendation of a particular investment strategy to you. You should not buy or sell an investment without first considering whether it is appropriate for you and your portfolio. Additionally, you should review and consider any recent market news. Supporting documentation for any claims or statistical information is available upon request.

All expressions of opinion are subject to change without notice in reaction to shifting market or other conditions. Data contained herein from third-party providers is obtained from what are considered reliable sources. However, its accuracy, completeness or reliability cannot be guaranteed.

Risks of the REITs are similar to those associated with direct ownership of real estate, such as changes in real estate values and property taxes, interest rates, cash flow of underlying real estate assets, supply and demand, and the management skill and creditworthiness of the issuer. Investing in REITs may pose additional risks such as real estate industry risk, interest rate risk, risks related to the uncertainty of and compliance with certain tax regime rules, and liquidity risk.

The policy analysis provided by Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., does not constitute and should not be interpreted as an endorsement of any political party.

The S&P 1500 REITs Index represents the Real Estate Investment Trusts securities within the S&P 1500 Supercomposite Index. Measures the performance of publicly traded REITs and REIT-like securities and is designed to serve as a proxy for direct real estate investment.  It is a subset of the S&P 1500 Real Estate Sector Index, which is a subset of the S&P 1500 Supercomposite Index. The following are a subset of the S&P 1500 Real Estate Investment Trust Index: Industrial REITs Index: Companies or Trusts engaged in the acquisition, development, ownership, leasing, management and operation of industrial properties. Includes companies operating industrial warehouses and distribution properties. Hotel & Resort REITs Index: Companies or Trusts engaged in the acquisition, development, ownership, leasing, management and operation of hotel and resort properties. Office REITs Index: Companies or Trusts engaged in the acquisition, development, ownership, leasing, management and operation of office properties.

Health Care REITs Index: Companies or Trusts engaged in the acquisition, development, ownership, leasing, management and operation of properties serving the health care industry, including hospitals, nursing homes, and assisted living properties. Residential REITs Index: Companies or Trusts engaged in the acquisition, development, ownership, leasing, management and operation of residential properties including multifamily homes, apartments, manufactured homes and student housing properties. Retail REITs Index: Companies or Trusts engaged in the acquisition, development, ownership, leasing, management and operation of shopping malls, outlet malls, neighborhood and community shopping centers. Specialized REITs Index: Companies or Trusts engaged in the acquisition, development, ownership, leasing, management and operation of properties not classified elsewhere. Includes trusts that operate and invest in storage properties. It also includes REITs that do not generate a majority of their revenues and income from real estate rental and leasing operations.

Diversification and asset allocation do not ensure a profit and do not protect against losses in declining markets. 

Forecasts contained herein are for illustrative purposes only, may be based upon proprietary research and are developed through analysis of historical public data.

Indexes are unmanaged, do not incur management fees, costs and expenses and cannot be invested in directly. For more information on indexes please see

Past performance is no guarantee of future results and the opinions presented cannot be viewed as an indicator of future performance.

Investing involves risk including loss of principal.

All corporate names are for illustrative purposes only and are not a recommendation, offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy any security.

The Schwab Center for Financial Research (SCFR) is a division of Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.


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