Download the Schwab app from iTunes®Close

The Law of Averages and Your Portfolio

After months of fast drops and sudden rises in the market this year, investors may have all but forgotten 2019’s record runup of nearly 30%. But recency bias—or the tendency to believe something is more likely to happen again because it happened recently—highlights the need to look beyond the present when it comes to your long-term investments. “Those deep valleys don’t look quite so scary if you’re able to zoom out from the day-to-day and see the big picture,” says Mark Riepe, head of the Schwab Center for Financial Research.

The fact is, the S&P 500 returned an average of about 10.2% annually from its inception in 1926 through 2019 (see “The bigger picture,” below). In other words, even the market’s darkest days—including three Black Mondays (10/28/1929; 10/19/1987; and 08/24/2015) and numerous other market corrections—couldn’t knock the index off its long-term march upward.

The bigger picture

Despite nearly a century of extreme peaks and valleys, the S&P 500 has averaged an annual return of 10.2% since its inception.

Source: Schwab Center for Financial Research. Data from 1926 through 2019. Note: Annual returns from 1926 through 1970 is represented by the Ibbotson U.S. Large Stock Index, which comprised the same components as the S&P 500 and its predecessor indexes.

If you have a hard time stomaching volatility, Mark’s advice is to limit how often you check your long-term accounts. “You shouldn’t focus on that money every single day,” Mark says. “At best, you’ll drive yourself crazy. At worst, you’ll be tempted to sell when markets turn against you.”

Of course, you shouldn’t completely ignore your investments, either. “Review your statements and adjust your holdings as necessary in order to maintain your target asset allocation—assuming your financial situation hasn’t fundamentally changed,” Mark says. “If it has, revisit your financial plan.”

As for external events, remember that, good or bad, this too shall pass. “Just as you shouldn’t make plans based on the good times lasting forever,” Mark says, “neither should you make plans assuming the bad times will last forever—because they won’t.”

What You Can Do Next

Investing with a robo-advisor can help you keep your emotions in check. Learn more about Schwab’s robo-advisor, Schwab Intelligent Portfolios®.

Important Disclosures

Please read the Schwab Intelligent Portfolios Solutions™ disclosure brochures for important information, pricing, and disclosures related to the Schwab Intelligent Portfolios and Schwab Intelligent Portfolios Premium programs. Schwab Intelligent Portfolios® and Schwab Intelligent Portfolios Premium™ are made available through Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (“Schwab”), a dually registered investment advisor and broker dealer.

Portfolio management services are provided by Charles Schwab Investment Advisory, Inc. (“CSIA”). Schwab and CSIA are subsidiaries of The Charles Schwab Corporation.

Past performance is no guarantee of future results and the opinions presented cannot be viewed as an indicator of future performance.

Investing involves risk, including loss of principal.

Indexes are unmanaged, do not incur management fees, costs, and expenses, and cannot be invested in directly. For more information on indexes please see

Asset allocation strategies do not ensure a profit and do not protect against losses in declining markets.

The information provided here is for general informational purposes only and should not be considered an individualized recommendation or personalized investment advice. The investment strategies mentioned here may not be suitable for everyone. Each investor needs to review an investment strategy for his or her own particular situation before making any investment decision.

All expressions of opinion are subject to change without notice in reaction to shifting market conditions. Data contained herein from third-party providers is obtained from what are considered reliable sources. However, its accuracy, completeness, or reliability cannot be guaranteed.

Examples provided are for illustrative purposes only and not intended to be reflective of results you can expect to achieve.


Thumbs up / down votes are submitted voluntarily by readers and are not meant to suggest the future performance or suitability of any account type, product or service for any particular reader and may not be representative of the experience of other readers. When displayed, thumbs up / down vote counts represent whether people found the content helpful or not helpful and are not intended as a testimonial. Any written feedback or comments collected on this page will not be published. Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. may in its sole discretion re-set the vote count to zero, remove votes appearing to be generated by robots or scripts, or remove the modules used to collect feedback and votes.