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How to Pick Value Stocks

Picking stocks isn’t simply a matter of choosing a few companies you like, then executing some trades—just because a company makes stellar products doesn’t guarantee it will be a good investment.

If you want to find quality stocks that have the potential to go the distance, it’s far better to dig into their financials. How are profit margins? Is the company overleveraged? What about cash flow?

The fundamental goal here is to identify companies that might be undervalued in the marketplace, also known as value stocks. Here are our four favorite metrics for evaluating the financial health of such stocks.

1. Price-to-earnings ratio

Looking at a company’s price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio—that is, its current stock price relative to its earnings per share—is useful for determining its intrinsic worth relative to its market value. A lower P/E ratio, for example, suggests the stock may be underpriced and could have room to rally.

Some investors look at a P/E ratio based on expected earnings; however, that introduces another layer of guesswork. We suggest sticking with historical earnings and looking at profits over the past four quarters. And since these ratios tend to vary between sectors, make sure you’re comparing the P/E ratios for companies within the same sector.

To view a company’s P/E ratio over time, log in to the Research tab, enter its ticker symbol, click the Charts tab and then select P/E Ratio from the Indicators dropdown.

2. Return on equity

After gauging a company’s valuation, you’ll want to know about the quality of its earnings. Does the company have the financial strength to maintain its profits or, ideally, to grow them? One way to assess this is by looking at its return on equity (ROE), or how efficiently the company uses its capital. One formula for determining this is:

net income ÷ (assets – liabilities)

A higher percentage is better, but, as with P/E ratio, a company’s ROE should be assessed relative to its peer group.

Be aware that a sudden jump in ROE may be due to an increase in a company’s debt—not an improvement in its profitability. So always check to see whether a company’s debt levels have changed significantly.

To find a company’s ROE, log in to the Research tab, enter its ticker symbol and then click the Ratios tab.

3. Volatility

Swings in the price of a stock can be an indication that investors are uncertain about its earnings. What is the degree to which the daily share price fluctuates relative to its industry peers? Generally speaking, you want a stock to have lower-than-average volatility, as it may signal steadier earnings. Unfortunately, such analyses can be difficult for individual investors to perform, in which case consulting volatility forecasts from industry experts can help.

Schwab Equity Ratings® include a Price Volatility Outlook for all rated stocks. To screen for stocks by their volatility outlook, log in to, click Analyst Ratings, select SER Volatility Outlook, and then choose Low, Medium and/or High.

4. Momentum

Increasing investor interest is a positive sign, all else being equal. If, over the past six months, a stock’s price has broken above the range it had been trading within for an extended period, the stock could have momentum and may continue to climb. That said, positive momentum is more like extra credit and shouldn’t trump other metrics such as valuation.

To view a company’s momentum over time, log in to the Research tab, enter its ticker symbol, click the Charts tab and then select Momentum from the Indicators dropdown.

Proceed with caution

These four metrics are a start, but successfully picking individual value stocks is difficult, mostly due to the amount of research and time it takes. As a result, even the most talented amateurs might want to limit their investment in individual equities to 5% to 10% of their nonretirement portfolio.


What You Can Do Next

Have questions about your stock investments? Call 800-355-2162 or stop by your local branch to schedule an appointment with a Schwab investment professional.

Important Disclosures

Schwab Equity Ratings and the general buy/hold/sell guidance are not personal recommendations for any particular investor or client and do not take into account the financial, investment or other objectives or needs of, and may not be suitable for, any particular investor or client. Investors and clients should consider Schwab Equity Ratings as only a single factor in making their investment decision while taking into account the current market environment.

Investing involves risks, including loss of principal.

The Schwab Center for Financial Research is a division of Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.

The information provided here is for general informational purposes only and should not be considered an individualized recommendation or personalized investment advice. The investment strategies mentioned here may not be suitable for everyone. Each investor needs to review an investment strategy for his or her own particular situation before making any investment decision.

All expressions of opinion are subject to change without notice in reaction to shifting market conditions. Data contained herein from third-party providers is obtained from what are considered reliable sources. However, its accuracy, completeness or reliability cannot be guaranteed.

Examples provided are for illustrative purposes only and not intended to be reflective of results you can expect to achieve.


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