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Get to Know Your Investment Costs

A Closer Look at Investment Costs

You know that investment costs can add up over the decades—you’ve heard it a thousand times. But the reality is that your money could be invested for far longer than the standard 30-year period that many people cite when they talk about your all-in cost.

To digest the full impact that all your investing costs can have, you should consider them over the course of 40 or even 50 years. True, expense ratios have dropped in recent years, but it pays to ask the professionals you work with to run the numbers so you can weigh the full impact of all the expenses you may be paying in light of your overall financial goals.

Because while you no doubt keep an eye on expense ratios and management fees, savvy investors should be aware of all the costs associated with their portfolio.

Hypothetical costs over your investing lifespan

Consider what could happen over the course of four decades of investment: Suppose that at age 45, you invest $1 million in a professionally managed portfolio. If you assume a 6% rate of return and all-in costs of, say, 2% a year, you’ll end up with about $4.8 million by the time you're 85.

However, in this hypothetical example, if your all-in cost was only 1% a year, your investment would grow to about $7 million after 40 years, a difference of $2.2 million. And that’s huge.

Granted, investment costs are a part of financial life. Often you pay more for a particular manager’s or advisor’s skill. But as you can see from these numbers, given not only your portfolio’s costs but also those costs over an extended period of time, it’s truly essential to be fee-smart.

“After all, costs represent dollars that aren’t being invested,” says Michael Iachini, Director of Mutual Fund and ETF Research for Charles Schwab Investment Advisory.

Caveat investor

“Many investors don’t fully understand their investment costs,” says Anthony Davidow, Asset Allocation Strategist at the Schwab Center for Financial Research. “If you are signing up for an advisory program, read the advisory agreement. If you are buying a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund (ETF), look at the prospectus.”

What costs should you look for when going through those documents, and what can you do about them? While you may not pay these charges directly, they still affect your return. The key is to be aware of what you’re paying and, when necessary, investigate lower-cost options. Here are some common examples of investment costs:

  • Commission: Paid when buying or selling a security through a financial institution, in compensation for services. “The smaller your investment and the more frequently you trade, the more important the commission becomes. Look for ETFs or mutual funds that trade commission-free if you plan to make a small investment or hold the investment short-term,” says Michael.
  • Markup: Paid when a broker acting in a principal capacity sells you a security (typically a fixed income security) or you participate in a foreign exchange trade, at a price that is higher than the market price.
  • Sales load: Paid to a financial institution for buying or selling securities (typically mutual funds) on your behalf.
  • Investment advisory fee: Paid annually for an investment advisor managing your portfolio or providing advice.
  • Annual operating expenses: Paid for the management and marketing of investment products such as mutual funds and ETFs. These expenses can include management fees, 12b-1 fees (paid by the fund out of fund assets to cover distribution expenses and sometimes shareholder service expenses) and various other expenses. Michael points out that if you plan to hold a mutual fund or ETF for more than a year, this is probably the most important cost.
  • 401(k) fee: An expense for operating and administering a 401(k) plan, which is in addition to the commissions and annual operating expenses of the investments that you may hold in your plan.

While a more passive, low-cost portfolio will likely come with lower fees, that’s only one layer of costs. Paying for financial advice can bring its own charges, with the potential to erode investment returns. As with any other kind of fee, it’s important to know what you’re paying for and that you’re getting good value for your money.

Taking ownership

Anthony encourages investors to understand all their investments costs. Some fees are transparent but others are imbedded and difficult to understand. He recommends asking questions and advocating for clarity about investment costs. So don’t be shy about asking your financial professional what you’re really paying. It matters—a lot.

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Important Disclosures

Investors should carefully consider information contained in the prospectus, including investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses. You can request a prospectus by visiting or calling Schwab at 800-435-4000. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing.

Investment returns will fluctuate and are subject to market volatility, so that an investor's shares, when redeemed or sold, may be worth more or less than their original cost. Unlike mutual funds, shares of ETFs are not individually redeemable directly with the ETF. Shares are bought and sold at market price, which may be higher or lower than the net asset value.

The information here is for general informational purposes only and should not be considered an individualized recommendation or personalized investment advice. The type of securities and investment strategies mentioned may not be suitable for everyone. Each investor needs to review a security transaction for his or her own particular situation.

The Schwab Center for Financial Research is a division of Charles Schwab & Co., Inc.

Charles Schwab Investment Advisory, Inc. (“CSIA”) is an affiliate of Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (“Schwab”).


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